Friday, June 28, 2013

Notes on Sentence Structures

Sentence Structures 
  1.  Simple
  2. Compound
  3. Complex
  4. Compound-Complex
Simple Sentence 
A simple sentence has one subject and one predicate.

Mary plays tennis.

A simple sentence with a compound subject and compound predicate:

Mary and Tom play tennis and swim.

Compound Sentences 
A compound sentence has more than one part that can stand alone (independent clauses). Independent clauses are connected by coordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs or a semi-colon.

Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.

 “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).

Complex Sentence
A complex sentence has at least two parts: one that can stand alone and another one that cannot. The part that cannot stand alone is linked to the rest of the sentence by a subordinating conjunction. The most common subordinating conjunctions are   "after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether,” and “while."

Bob is popular because he is rich.
Since Bob is rich, he is popular.

Compound-Complex Sentence
This type of sentence has more than one part that can stand alone, and at least one that cannot. Conjunctions link the different parts of this sentence.

Bob is popular because he is rich, but he is not very happy.


Notes on the DO, IO, OC, and SC (PN and PA)

Direct Object
The d.o. is always a noun
The d.o. will always follow an action verb- an action that you can do to someone or to something
The d.o. will answer the question WHO or WHAT
The d.o. will NEVER be in a prepositional phrase (cross them out!)

The dog eats food.
The dog eats what? Food  (Direct Object)

Indirect Object
There must be a direct object
Therefore, there must be an action verb
The indirect object will always come BEFORE the d.o.
The indirect object answers the questions TO WHOM, TO WHAT, or FOR WHOM
The i.o. is NEVER in a prep phrase
The i.o. is ALWAYS a noun

The dog brought me his bone.
The dog brought his bone to whom? Me (Indirect Object)

Verbs commonly used with indirect objects:

Indirect Objects can be rephrased as prepositional phrases after the direct object:

The dog brought his bone to me.  (Prep Phrase)

The Objective Complement
An objective complement is an adjective or a noun that appears with a direct object and describes or renames it. Object Complements can either be nouns or adjectives.  They restate the direct object.

I made my dog angry.  (angry = adjective)
I consider my dog a good companion.  (companion = noun)
They are used only with the following verbs:
Appoint, Name, Make, Think, & Call

An objective complement can only be found in a sentence with a direct object.
To determine if a word is an objective complement, say the verb and the direct object, then ask What?

The girl considers her dog intelligent.
The girl considers her dog what? Intelligent (Objective Complement)

Predicate Nominative
There must be a linking verb (state of being verb)
The pn means the same thing as the subject
The pn is NEVER in a prep phrase
The pn is ALWAYS a noun
The pn is ALWAYS on the RIGHT side of the linking verb

John is the captain

Predicate Adjective
There must be a linking verb
A predicate adjective describes the subject
The predicate adjective is NEVER in a prep phrase
The predicate adjective is always an adjective
The predicate adjective is ALWAYS on the right side of the verb

The dog is hungry.


Monday, June 24, 2013

Notes on Skin, Hair, and Nail Vocabulary

A good understanding of vocabulary words in pharmacy is very important for communication with professors, fellow students, patients, and coworkers. Knowledge of understanding leads to successful communication and success as a pharmacy student, as a pharmacy technician, and as a practicing pharmacist.